Ponding Water: Standing water not draining off roof system. Can damage roof membrane and enter building envelope.
Flashing: A protective covering placed around roof penetrations/roof perimeter. Stops water penetrating roof.
Blueberries: These are the result of dried out surface asphalt.
Windswept: High winds can remove metal and stones from the roof pitch pocket is traditionally a metal boot or pipe sleeves that are used to create a water tight seal in a roof penetration that allows electrical cable and items to enter the building to provide power etc.
Decking: The substrate that the roof is sitting on. Can be metal, wood, or concrete.
Exposed felts: Areas lacking in surface asphalt, mineral, granule, or aggregate due to wind and water erosion.
Expansion/Control Joint: is an assembly designed to safely absorb the heat-induced expansion and contraction of construction materials.
Penetrations: Anything that you can see on top of the roof including perimeters, HVAC units, pitch pockets, vent stacks.
Core cut/Core sample: Cutting through the membrane of the roof down to the deck for investigative purposes.
Splits: Splits in a membrane can be caused by the expansion and contraction of the building. Old and weakening membranes are no longer flexible and eventually fail.
Ridges: You will see these on the surface of Built up roofs B.U.R as linear buckling upward through the layers of asphalt.
Alligatoring: A result of the drying out and shrinking of the asphalt surface.
Blisters: Appear to be giant bubbles at the surface of the roof.
Curbs: Raised frame used to mount mechanical units (air conditioning or exhaust fans), skylights, etc. on a roof.
Parapet Wall: Is a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, or other structure.